Tag Archives: Punctuation

How to use hyphens and dashes

A hyphen is a short line used in compound words and double-barrelled names. There’s one there in “double-barrelled”, which is a compound word. Hyphens don’t usually have spaces before or after them. A dash is a long line used as a punctuation symbol. … Continue reading

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How to use commas part 4

The bracketing comma Bracketing commas usually come in pairs. They are used to mark information which is not essential to the meaning of a sentence. Such non-essential information is called a “non-restrictive phrase” or a “weak interruption”. E.g.: All the … Continue reading

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How to use commas part 3

The gapping comma The gapping comma is very simple. It is used to avoid repetition and to show that words have been left out. For example: The blue files contain invoices from 2012; the red files, from 2013. The words … Continue reading

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How to use commas part 2

The joining comma The joining comma is used to join two complete sentences into a single sentence. It must be followed by one of the following conjunctions: and, but, or, so, while, yet. Have a look at this example: The … Continue reading

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How to use commas

Following up on the previous post, here’s more on how to use commas in English. There are 4 different kinds of comma. I will look at each in a separate post. 1. Listing comma 2. Joining comma 3. Gapping comma … Continue reading

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Comma before “that”

Different languages have different rules about how to use commas. You cannot use the punctuation rules of your native language when you write in English – you must use English rules. Putting a comma before “that” is a very common … Continue reading

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How to use apostrophes

An apostrophe is one of these: ’ It is NOT one of these: ‘ That is an inverted comma (or quotation mark/speech mark), which is used for opening quotations.  ’ is also used to close a quotation, in which case … Continue reading

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