How to translate “przedsiębiorca”

“Przedsiębiorca” is usually translated as “entrepreneur”. Although this is one of several possible translations, 99% of the time it is the wrong word.

First of all, look at a Polish definition of “przedsiębiorca”:

Zgodnie z definicją  zawartą w art. 431 kodeksu cywilnego przedsiębiorca to: „osoba fizyczna, osoba prawna i jednostka organizacyjna, która nie jest osobą prawną, a której ustawa przyznaje zdolność prawną, prowadząca we własnym imieniu działalność gospodarczą lub zawodową”.

I have underlined “osoba prawna i jednostka organizacyjna, która nie jest osobą prawną” because the key difference between “przedsiębiorca” and “entrepreneur” is that “przedsiębiorca” includes this meaning while “entrepreneur” does not.

“Przedsiębiorca” has a very broad meaning, ranging from an individual natural person who carries out economic activity to a large company.

In contrast, “entrepreneur” has a very narrow meaning. It only means an individual natural person who carries out economic activity – and is usually used to describe businessmen who built successful businesses with a great deal of initiative and risk-taking. So Steve Jobs was an entrepreneur, Virgin’s Richard Branson is an entrepreneur, Tesla’s Elon Musk is an entrepreneur, Jan Kulczyk was an entrepreneur.

If you use “przedsiebiorca” to refer to an entity rather than an individual natural person, then you cannot use “entrepreneur”.

Instead you should use one of the following, which may depend on the context. I find “business entity” is usually the best-fit:

            business entity
            enterprise
            company
            business
            economic operator
            business operator
            operator
            business venture
            undertaking

Translate rejestr przedsiębiorców as “companies register”, NOT “register of entrepreneurs”.

 

 

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The difference between “commitment” and “commission” (and “committee” and “committal”)

The verb “commit” has numerous related noun forms: commitment, commission, committal and committee. Many people – native English speakers included – do not know all the differences between them.

A criminal “commits a crime”. But we cannot talk about the “commitment of a crime”. Instead we say “commission of a crime”.

We use the word “commitment” to describe something that you have to do or something that requires time and responsibility – i.e. something you have promised to do or have to do due to, e.g., work or family reasons. We can talk about “family commitments” or “work commitments”.

When we promise to do something or take on a responsibility, we “make a commitment”.

For example: I’d like a dog, but it would be such a commitment, and I simply don’t have the time.

This usage of the noun is countable.

If you “show commitment” you demonstrate that you are willing to do something.

For example, an employer might include the following in a reference about a former employee: David is a very diligent worker and showed enormous commitment to the job.

This usage of the noun is uncountable.

 

The word “commission” can be a noun and a verb.

We can talk about the “commission of an offence/murder” as well as a crime.

A “commission” can be a request to do a piece of work or carry out an activity: We’ve got a commission to investigate allegations of corruption.

As a verb, “commission” has the same meaning: I’ve been commissioned to write a series of articles on alternative energy sources.

A “commission” can be a fee for an agent to carry out certain work: As a sales rep I don’t earn a salary, I get a 20% commission on each sale.

A “commission” can also be a group of people appointed and given the power (i.e. commissioned) to perform certain tasks.

 

A “committee” is also a group of people, but differs from a commission in that its members are representatives of a parent body. A committee makes decisions on behalf of the parent body.

 

A “committal” is an act of entrusting something or someone to the care of another person. So, for example, you can have a committal of property to an attorney, or a committal of a person to a mental health institution. In the latter case we talk about someone being committed to an institution.

 

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Common mistakes with the Present Perfect tense

The Present Perfect tense is made up of have/has and the past participle of a verb:

He has eaten all the chocolates.
I have included your amendments in the draft agreement.

It is perhaps the most difficult of all verb tenses in English. This is partly because many other languages don’t have an equivalent, so speakers of those languages find it difficult to understand the concept.

In this post I will not try to explain what the Present Perfect tense means – instead I will show you how to avoid some of the most common mistakes.

 

WRONG
We have finally received the requested documents on Monday.
We have submitted the information before we filed the application.
I have phoned him yesterday.
We have not completed the report last week.
The transaction has not been finalised by 31 December 2017.
We have analysed the contracts during the first due diligence process.
This issue has been discussed prior to executing the transaction.

All the above examples are mistakes because the Present Perfect cannot be used with expressions of finished time (i.e. specified times in the past – underlined in the above examples).

An expression of finished time is any word or phrase that tells you when something happened or did not happen. If an expression of finished time describes when an action happened (or did not happen) you should use the Past Simple:

RIGHT
We finally received the requested documents on Monday.
We submitted the information before we filed the application.
I phoned him yesterday.
We did not complete the report last week.
The transaction was not finalised by 31 December 2017.
We analysed the contracts during the first due diligence process.
This issue was discussed prior to executing the transaction.

 

The Present Perfect often goes with adverbs of indefinite time: 

already
as yet
before
ever
just
never
recently 
since
so far
still
to date
until now
yet

We’ve already met a couple of times.
So far the regulator has not indicated that this type of activity is contrary to the provisions on insurance activity.
We still have not received payment of the invoice.
Have you ever seen anything like this before?
Mr Smith has just arrived.
We have recently received a new instruction from this client.
We have not heard from the tax authority yet.

 

The Present Perfect may be used for expressing an action that continues up to the present time. Compare the following:

I have worked at the company for three years.
(And I work there now.)

I worked at the company for three years.
(I no longer work there.)

WRONG
I am working at the company for three years.

Our lawyers have represented many high profile clients.
(And continue to do so.)
Adam is a highly experienced investigator who has worked on numerous cases of this type.
(And continues to do so.)

This form is useful in marketing material and CVs.

 

The Present Perfect is used in sentences that contain the following constructions:

this is the first time…
it is the second best…
it is the worst…
this is the only time…
etc.

This is the second time that we have asked you to send us the documents.
This is the worst hotel I’ve ever stayed in.
This is the heaviest suitcase I have ever carried.

 

In time clauses with after, until, when, as soon as, once, we often use the Present Perfect to refer to future events:

As soon as we have heard the verdict from the court we will contact you.
I won’t contact the client until I’ve received your instructions.
I’ll give you further details when I’ve discussed the situation with John.
Once I have read all the documentation I assume the matter will be clear.

In US English, however, it is more common to use the Present Simple in the same kind of sentence:

As soon as we hear the verdict from the court we will contact you.
I will not contact the client until I receive your instructions.

WRONG
As soon as we will hear the verdict from the court we will contact you.
I won’t contact the client until I will receive your instructions.

 

If we talk about something that happened before something else happened, we do NOT use the Present Perfect:

WRONG
During the inspection it was found that the provision for an average 5-day working week has been violated.

RIGHT
During the inspection it was found that the provision for an average 5-day working week had been violated.

“had been violated” is in the Past Perfect tense – i.e. the inspection is in the past and the violation happened before the inspection.

WRONG
The Company has admitted in the course of the proceedings that the boundaries of the tunnel have been measured incorrectly.

RIGHT
The Company has admitted in the course of the proceedings that the boundaries of the tunnel were measured incorrectly.

“were measured” is in the Past Simple tense ­– i.e. the proceedings are ongoing (we know this because “has admitted” is the Present Perfect, which expresses action that continues up to the present time) and the incorrect measurements were made before the proceedings.

 

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When to use “a” and when to use “an”

We say “an old man” but “a young child”. What is the rule for using “a” and “an”?

The rule is that we use “a” before a consonant sound and “an” before a vowel sound. Note that it’s the sound that matters, not the letter the word begins with.

Examples:

a desk an old desk
a new office an office
a task an impossible task
a year an ear
a holiday an hour
a university an uncle

Words that begin with “h” or “u” can sometimes be confusing, but you should stick to the above rule.

We say “an hour” because we pronounce “hour” without the h-sound. Similarly we say “an honourable person” because “honourable” is pronounced “onrable”.

In British English the word “herb” is pronounced with the h-sound – so we say “a herb”, but Americans tend to pronounce it as “erb”, so they write “an herb”.

One area of debate is how to use the word “historic”. Do we say “an historic achievement” or “a historic achievement”? On Google “an historic achievement” gets over 94,000 results, while “a historic achievement” gets just over 80,000 results – so, on that measure it seems “an historic…” wins – even though we usually pronounce the h-sound.

We use “a” with words like “university”, “utopia” and “European” because, although they start with a vowel, they are pronounced with a consonant sound – “you-niversity”, “you-topia”, “your-opean”.

But words like “uncle” and “onion” start with a vowel sound, so we say “an uncle”, “an onion”.

But the word “one” is pronounced “wun”. So it takes “a”. For example, “a one-track mind”.

Abbreviations and acronyms also take “a” or “an” depending on their pronunciation – so we say “a NATO member”, but “an MBA” – where NATO is pronounced “nayto” and MBA is pronounced “em-bee-ay”.

 

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How to translate “nie później niż w ciągu”

I often see the literal translation of this phrase – not later than within. This is always wrong.

Here’s an example:

POLISH
Płatności należy dokonać nie później niż w ciągu pięciu dni od daty otrzymania niniejszego pisma.

WRONG
The payment must be made no later than within five days from the date of receipt of this letter.

RIGHT
1.
The payment must be made no later than five days after the date of receipt of this letter.
2.
The payment must be made within five days of the date of receipt of this letter.

Not / no later than” can only be used to refer to a point in time. So sentence 1 above refers to a day five days after the date of receipt of the letter.

Within” can only be used to refer to a period of time. So sentence 2 refers to the period of five days that starts on the date of receipt of the letter.

You simply cannot say “no later than within” – in English. You cannot mix periods of time with points in time. It is logically incorrect.

And I wonder – is nie później niż w ciągu actually correct in Polish? Isn’t it logically incorrect in Polish too? Why not use the phrase below instead?

Płatności należy dokonać w ciągu pięciu dni od daty otrzymania niniejszego pisma.

Here are some more examples with their correct translations.

Note the patterns “no later than … after” and “within … of”.

Posiedzenie komitetu zostanie zwołane nie później niż w ciągu pierwszego półrocza 2018 roku.
The committee meeting must be held within the first half of 2018.

Zawiadomienia dokonuje się nie później niż w ciągu trzydziestu dni od daty wydania decyzji.
The notification must be made within 30 days of the date of the decision.
The notification must be made no later than 30 days after the date of the decision.

W każdym przypadku, pierwszej odpowiedzi należy udzielić nie później niż w ciągu 15 dni roboczych od otrzymania zapytania.
In any case, the first answer should be provided no later than 15 working days after receipt of the inquiry.
In any case, the first answer should be provided within 15 working days of receipt of the inquiry.

Pierwszy wlew dożylny jest podawany jak najszybciej po zdarzeniu, nie później niż w ciągu 6 godzin.
The first intravenous infusion is given as soon as possible after the incident, and no later than 6 hours after it happened.

Środki na rzecz wycofania z rynku wchodzą w życie bezzwłocznie i są wdrażane jak najszybciej, jednak nie później niż w ciągu dwóch tygodni od stwierdzenia problemu dotyczącego zgodności.
The withdrawal measures come into force without delay and must be implemented as soon as possible, and in any event not later than two weeks after the compliance problem has been identified.

 

 

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How to write dates

There is a difference between how dates are written in British and American English.

In British English dates are usually written in the day-month-year format, for example:

6 October 2017

In American English dates are usually written in the month-day-year format:

October 6, 2017
(note the comma between the day and the year)

In British English we can also use the abbreviated form as follows:

6/10/17
(different punctuation marks may be used: 6.10.17 or 6-10-17)

Caution is required here, however, as Americans usually put the month first:

10/6/17

As you can imagine, this can lead to ambiguity as the above date might be understood as 10 June 2017 instead of 6 October 2017.

In an attempt to avoid ambiguity resulting from the different ways of writing dates around the world, an ISO standard was adopted in 1988. This uses the year-month-day format as follows: 2017-10-6. However, this format is not widely used in Britain or the US.

 

How to say dates

6 October 2017 is said as follows:

the sixth of October twenty-seventeen (note “the” and “of”)

October 6, 2017 is said as follows:

October sixth, twenty-seventeen

23 April 2005 is said as follows:

the twenty-third of April two thousand and five

The year 2000 is said as “two thousand”.

We tend to say “two thousand and…” up to 2009.

2010 may be said as “two thousand and ten” or “twenty-ten”.

From 2011 onwards we tend to say “twenty-eleven”, “twenty-twelve” etc.

Years before 2000 are said as in these examples:

1984 — nineteen eighty-four
1902 — nineteen oh two
1848 — eighteen forty-eight
1492 — fourteen ninety-two
1066 — ten sixty-six

As we use ordinal numbers (first, second, third, fourth, etc.) when we say dates, sometimes we add the endings of ordinal numbers when we write dates, as follows:

6th October 2017

October 6th, 2017

This style used to be more popular, but it seems to be rather out of fashion now. If you do use it, remember to add the correct ending (st, nd, rd or th):

1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, then use th until 21st, 22nd, 23rd, 24th, etc.

 

Abbreviations of months

All the names of the months have short forms except May and June:

Jan, Feb, Mar, Apr, Jul, Aug, Sept, Oct, Nov, Dec

Remember we always capitalise months, whether we write them in full or abbreviate them. Some style guides may add a full stop/period after the abbreviation, but it is generally OK not to use one.

 

Abbreviations of days

All the names of days have short forms:

Mon, Tues/Tue, Wed, Thurs/Thu, Fri, Sat, Sun

For Tuesday and Thursday, Tues and Thurs are common, but for the sake of consistency I advocate the three-letter style – bolded above.

Remember we always capitalise days, whether we write them in full or abbreviate them. Some style guides may add a full stop/period after the abbreviation, but it is generally OK not to use one.

 

 

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How to use “since”

“Since” can be an expression of time, and it can mean “because”.

“Since” as a time expression

When used to express time, the word “since” means:
— from a time in the past until the present
— from a time in the past until another time in the past.

1. From a time in the past until the present

Because of its relationship with time “since” must be used with the correct verb tense. Have a look at these examples of a common mistake:

WRONG
He is out of the office since you last phoned.
As you may recall, the Paris office assists us with this project since it started.
Mr Jones is employed by the Company since September 2016.

In these three sentences the writers have made the mistake of using the Present Simple tense (is / assists / is employed) instead of the Present Perfect tense.

RIGHT
He has been out of the office since you last phoned.
As you may recall, the Paris office has assisted us with this project since it started.
Mr Jones has been employed by the Company since September 2016.

Note that these examples follow this pattern:
Present Perfect tense in the main clause and Past tense (or a date in the past) after “since”.

More examples:
No Public Authority or third party has raised any claims or allegations under Clause 4.1 since the Agreement was signed.

Since he joined the firm as a junior associate in 1998, he has become one of the most highly regarded lawyers in his field.

(Since joining… is an alternative structure that may be used in this type of sentence.)

In all sentences of this type you must use the Present Perfect tense in the main clause. However, the rule that you use the Past tense after “since” is flexible. Sometimes we can use the Present Perfect here as well. For example:

The department has been extremely busy since we have had an office in Mumbai.
I’ve been feeling much better since I’ve been taking more exercise.

We use the Past tense after “since” when we refer to a point in time in the past, and we use the Present Perfect after “since” when we refer to a period of time from the past until the present. We could rewrite the above two examples to refer to points in time (and use the Past tense after “since”) as follows:

The department has been extremely busy since we opened an office in Mumbai.
I’ve been feeling much better since I started taking more exercise.

2. From a time in the past until another time in the past

“Since” can also be used to express time from a starting point in the past until an end point in the past. Such sentences may follow this pattern:

Past Perfect tense in the main clause and Past tense after “since”.

We were sorry to lose MaxCo when they ceased operations in Poland in 2016. They had been a client of ours since they entered the country in 2003.

In 2013 I was asked to direct the company’s promotional film. I had not done anything like that since I worked in TV advertising in 1993.

When I arrived I realised that they had been in the meeting since 9 am.

It is also possible to use the pattern Past Perfect tense in the main clause and Past Perfect tense after “since”. For example:

It had been 20 years since I had directed any kind of film.

3. “Ever since”

You can add stress to “since” by adding “ever”.

Our two senior partners have known each other ever since they were at primary school.

He moved to London in 1994 and he has been living there ever since.

4. Do NOT use “since” to express present time, future time or general time

Note that in all the above examples, “since” is used to describe past time. When used to express time, “since” can ONLY be used in this way.

WRONG
Present
We want the office to start operating since now, or by the end of June at the latest.

Future
I’ll be in the bar since 7 o’clock this evening.

General time
The licence-granting procedure should not take longer than 90 days since the submission of the application.

Instead use “from”:

RIGHT
Present
We want the office to start operating from now, or by the end of June at the latest.

Future
I’ll be in the bar from 7 o’clock this evening.

General time
The licence-granting procedure should not take longer than 90 days from the submission of the application.

5. Do NOT use “since” to express duration

WRONG
The Landlord may terminate the Agreement with immediate effect if the Tenant is in arrears with payments since three months.

Although we would usually expect a decision within six weeks of making an application, the Claimant has now been waiting since ten weeks.

Instead use “for”:

RIGHT
The Landlord may terminate the Agreement with immediate effect if the Tenant is in arrears with payments for three months.

Although we would usually expect a decision within six weeks of making an application, the Claimant has now been waiting for ten weeks.

Another common mistake

WRONG
He worked at Microsoft since 2003 to 2006.

RIGHT
He worked at Microsoft from 2003 to 2006.

Do not use “since” with “to”. Use “from” and “to” or “from” and “until”. Another example:

He worked at the company from the moment he qualified until his retirement.

WRONG
According to the statement, no accidents at work or on the way to or from work have occurred since 2006 until now.

RIGHT
According to the statement, no accidents at work or on the way to or from work have occurred since 2006.

Because “since” — and the Present Perfect tense — incorporate “until now” into their meanings, including “until now” in the above sentence is not necessary.

“Since” meaning “because”

We do not recommend the course of action you propose since there is a risk that the employee will refer the matter to court.

This usage of “since” is rather formal, and may be ambiguous in some sentences because “since” is more commonly used to express time. Consider this example:

We have analysed the tax aspects of the transaction since we were instructed to do so.

This could mean “We have analysed the tax aspects because we were instructed to do so” or “We have been analysing the tax aspects from the time we were instructed to do so”.

As a result, I recommend using “because” or “as” instead of “since”.

 

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